Genetic influence on medicines

meamedica personal medicine DNA test

Do you experience many of the side effects described in the package insert? Or does a medicine actually do less than you expected? That may be due to your genes, because everyone is unique, after all. pharmacogenetic test

The personal medicine test, a medication response test (also known as a pharmacogenetic test), determines how your body breaks down medicines based on your DNA. With these results, your healthcare provider can make better informed decisions about which medicine suits you best and at what dose/strength.

Your DNA influences the result

Your DNA determines how you respond to medication. Your genes have a huge influence on the way a medicine is taken up, divided into the body and broken down again. They can therefore be responsible for the differences in response to a medication. Your genes determine whether your body breaks down a drug too slowly, normally or too quickly, which can result in unpleasant side effects or no effect at all.

A pharmacogenetic test shows the activity of the different involved enzymes and gives information about the type of medicine that suits you and the corresponding dose.


There is an enzyme that is responsible for 95% of the breakdown of caffeine. Does our test show that you have a slow variant of this enzyme? Now you know better why you are awake for so long after a cup of coffee.


In people with inactive variants of the BCHE gene, muscle relaxants, which are used in emergency situations (operations), can last too long making independent breathing only possible later. A dose adjustment resolves this.

High Cholesterol

By a lower activity of certain enzymes, statins (simvastatin, ...) can be removed too slowly from the body. Then the medicine accumulates and that can explain severe side effects. So show the results to your doctor.

Blood Clotting

This test determines how your blood clotting is controlled. Maybe wound healing takes a little longer with you? Then at a later age you may also have less need for anticoagulants in the prevention of blood clots?

Which genes are exactly being tested?

Our pharmacogenetic test controls the following genes: ABCB1, BCHE, COMT, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, DPYD, F2, F5, HLA-B*1502, IL28B, MTHFR, OPRM1, SLCO1B1, TPMT, UGT1A1 and VKORC1.

A gene that allows for a transport protein. Among other things, it transports medicines from the brain and kidneys, for example.

A gene that produces an enzyme that helps protect the body against certain toxic substances by breaking them down before they reach the nerves.

COMT is involved in the conversion of certain "stress" hormones such as dopamine and adrenaline, but also, for example, certain female hormones.

CYP1A2 is part of a large family, the cytochrome P450 enzymes. They are primarily in the liver. This group is involved in the metabolism of approximately 60% of the drugs. 8 to 10% of this is converted by this gene, CYP1A2.

CYP2B6 is part of a large family, the cytochrome P450 enzymes. This group is involved in the metabolism of approximately 60% of the drugs. About 4% of the 200 most commonly prescribed and used medicines, including mainly antiviral drugs, are broken down by CYP2B6.

CYP2C9 is part of a large family, the cytochrome P450 enzymes. This group is involved in the metabolism of approximately 60% of the drugs. About 10%-20% of all medicines are (partly) converted by CYP2C9.

CYP2C19 is part of a large family, the cytochrome P450 enzymes. This group is involved in the metabolism of approximately 60% of the drugs. Approximately 8% of all medicines are (partly) converted by CYP2C19, including, for example, antidepressants, stomach agents (the proton pump inhibitors) and anticoagulants.

CYP2D6 is part of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, these are enzymes that mainly work in the liver and cause the breakdown of many different substances in the body. This gene is involved in at least 25% of medicines prescribed by doctors, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, opioids, tamoxifen, antiarrhythmics.

CYP2E1 is part of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, these are enzymes that work primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the brain, lungs and kidneys. They cause the breakdown of many different substances in the body.

CYP3A4 is part of the cytochrome P450 enzymes. This enzyme is one of the most important CYP enzymes because it is responsible for processing around 45-60% of the prescribed medicines.

CYP3A5 is part of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, these are enzymes that work primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the brain, lungs and kidneys. They cause the breakdown of many different substances in the body.

This gene plays a central role. It is involved in the degradation of the uracil and thymine molecules. These are building blocks of the DNA and the related RNA.

The F2 gene contains instructions for making a protein called prothrombin. This is a clotting factor that is important for blood clotting.

The F5 gene contains instructions for making a protein called coagulation factor V (5). This is a clotting factor that is important for blood clotting.

HLA-B*1502 is an important part of the immune system. It belongs to a family of genes, the HLA complex. It helps the immune system to distinguish between your own proteins and proteins from an intruder, such as a bacterium or a virus.

IL28B is a gene that codes for a cytokine. Cytokines are important signal proteins in the immune system. When a threat is detected in your body, many cytokines are activated, which can trigger the immune response.

The MTHFR gene encodes the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. This enzyme is involved in folic acid metabolism. This folic acid metabolism is essential for the production of DNA and protein synthesis, which in turn are essential for all bodily functions.

The OPRM1 gene contains instructions for making a protein called the mu (μ) opioid receptor. This is a normal part of our body and is called the opioid system and it is a system where pain, reward but also addiction are regulated.

This SLCO1B1 gene contains the instructions for making a protein called organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 or OATP1B1. It influences the transport of substances in the body. The protein is found in liver cells where it transports compounds from the blood to the liver so that they can be removed from the body.

The TPMT gene encodes the enzyme thiopurine S-methyl transferase. Just like COMT (also a methyl trasferase), TPMT is involved in the detoxification of the body. TPMT is mainly found in the liver and kidneys and is less common in the brain and lungs.

This gene belongs to a family of genes that provide instructions for making enzymes called UDP glucuronosyl transferases. These enzymes carry out a reaction called glucuronidation: this process is a convenient way for the body to make various substances more water-soluble and in this way easier to transport through the body or to remove from the body via urine or bile relief (from the liver).

This gene codes for an enzyme in the liver that plays a key role in the vitamin K cycle. Vitamin K plays an important role in helping to make a blood clot and thus preventing excessive bleeding.

Frequently asked questions

Additional information and frequently asked questions about medicines, collecting DNA, data privacy and test results.

Click on the image to open the entire table in a new window
This table shows medication per specific cytochrome P450 isoform. A drug appears in a column if there is published evidence that it is metabolized, at least in part, via that isoform. This does not necessarily mean that the isoform is the most important metabolic pathway in vivo, or that changes in the rate of metabolic reaction catalyzed by that isoform will have major effects on the pharmacokinetics of the drug. The information on the University of Indiana website is for information purposes only, intended as general health information and as an educational tool. It is not intended as medical advice.

Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007).
“” Accessed dec 18, 2018.

We only use cells from the cheek mucosa. Just scrape with a cotton swab on the inside of your cheek and you're done.
So... no needles and no blood!

It is very simple: our test kit contains a special swab that allows you to easily collect saliva by moving it along the inside of your cheek. You send the cotton swab back to us in the return envelope and we make sure that the lab gets started.

We aim to be able to offer you the results of the lab with 4-6 weeks.
When the time comes, you will receive an email from us. Your results will then be visible in your account.

That is easy: yours!
You determine what happens to your data. We ensure that this is done in the most reliable and safe way. We can give you more information about your genes if you leave the data with us, but you can also delete them from us. That is your choice, since the data is yours.

The data are yours. And if we run into a research project we would like your cooperation with, to enhance science, we will contact you and ask for your participation. Without your explicit permission, at that moment, nothing happens.

We do our utmost to prevent bad things from happening: we have taken measures to prevent illegal access so that your genetic information is safe with us.

  • Fully separate databases keep your genetic information disconnected from your personal (identifiable) information.
  • All connections to our website are encrypted using TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security/Secure Sockets Layer) technology.
  • External firewalls limit unauthorized connections to our databases.

We will send you an email as soon as the data from the lab is received by us.
Within your account all tested data are clearly displayed. We clearly indicate what the outcome means and what impact this can have for you.

For the DNA analysis we work together with an established and accredited laboratory. This way we can offer a high quality DNA analysis.

The possible results of the DNA test are:

  • PM, poor metabolizer - greatly reduced or no activity
  • IM, intermediate metabolizer - reduced activity
  • EM, extensive metabolizer - normal activity
  • UM, ultrarapid metabolizer - very fast activity

In the news...

Articles from newspapers and renowned organizations describing the value of pharmacogenetic testing and impact on personal health.
Some articles are not in English (we recommend you to use your browser translation feature to read them).

How genetic research can prevent serious side effects from chemotherapy.
Ellen de Visser (02-01-2019)
The conquest of our DNA, prevention or cure?
Bennie Mols, VPRO (2018)
Combinatorial pharmacogenetics useful in treatment for depression.
Emily Pond (07-09-2018)
Pharmacogenetics in psychiatry promising developments and potential pitfalls.
Batya Swift Yasgur (30-05-2018)
Genetic testing predict medication side effects.
Robert H. Shmerling (12-01-2018)
Medication too little adapted to dna patient.
KNMT (13-04-2017)
Pharmacogenetics essential for tailor-made treatment.
ZonMw (06-04-2017)

Read our patient's reviews personal medicine test

27-05-2019 |

I give 5 stars because this site is extremely informative and user-friendly. The explanation of the results and the underlying information is described clearly and comprehensibly. It is a clear story for me, with which you can do something right away. The person-oriented explanation of how the Genes work and the delay or acceleration factors are clear and well presented. The recommendations and advices are clearly and correctly described. The user-friendliness of the site and service are sensational. I also recognize certain complaints and side effects in the descriptions that both I and the doctors could not interpret earlier and that were often dismissed as almost impossible.
This test has given me and my treating physicians a great deal of insight, why I often respond paradoxically and with enormous and partly very severe side effects to certain medications, and why, for example, a necessary chemotherapy became life-threatening and I had to stop prematurely. For me personally, the knowledge of certain results gives me peace of mind and I can also accept things better now that I understand the reason. This information also gives me the opportunity to search for specific information myself, so that I can talk to specialists at the same level and help determine my treatment policy actively. This gives me conscious and clear decisions and therefore a high acceptance of any consequences; after all, I chose for it myself within the possibilities! I am now finally being taken seriously by my doctors with my always crazy reactions that "no one ever has", making me almost feel like a hysteric hypochondriac before. Now it's clear to everyone.
The support is also exceptional for me! The quick and patient, comprehensive answers to all my questions were always fantastic! Thanks to these results and your fantastic help, I have been able to record my personal treatment plan in more or less self-management. Without this information and your support I would be now at a completely different point, I am very grateful for that!
I recommend this test to everyone, I have already recommended it to many people. This test should actually become standard with certain treatments, many tests - low costs - much less drug misery! A great initiative, meaningful and super interesting !!! Thank you!!! personal medicine test

20-05-2019 |

I was very well helped by you, I always received a response to my e-mails with questions. And as far as the DNA test is concerned, everyone should do it. personal medicine test

28-03-2019 |

This test provides insight and explains why medicines work well or less well. In addition, the explanation/guidance is perfectly arranged.
I am going to take the data from the results to the doctor for any future changes to my medication.
I would definitely recommend this test! personal medicine test

18-03-2019 |

Clear general explanation. In addition to being very clear, the personal explanation is also very extensive. Gives a good picture of how the gene works and the advantages and disadvantages of medication. Removes unrest!
I will pass the data on to the doctor and possibly have additional blood tests done. I wholeheartedly recommend this test. I wish everyone a responsible use of medication. This can prevent a lot of misery.
We are very happy with your help and thank you very much !! personal medicine test

14-03-2019 |

I give this test 5 stars because of the scope of the test and the careful explanation.
I do not use medication now, but have had this test carried out for the future. Now I know what to look out for when talking to my doctor about a possible blood test. I also received important information from the test for future operations and medication use.
I would recommend this test to everyone! Important medical information is available when it is needed or when you are being asked about it. personal medicine test

14-03-2019 |

First, the full 5 stars on all levels.
I will discuss this test data bit by bit with my treating doctor and pharmacy. I am aware that I have to do this with caution as doctors are rather skeptical about examinations performed by third parties. I have already made the first move and I noticed a cautious restraint with my specialist, but it was certainly not a closed door. This will be therefore continued.
For me personally this test offers a certain peace. I can better accept the somewhat severe side effects now that I understand the reason. At the hospital I am assigned to a group of people who use pazopanib and other medication, but I now know why I sometimes respond differently to medication. The great thing is that I can explain this to the doctors, but especially to myself. (Understanding, acceptance and possible adjustment).
I will certainly introduce any changes to my current medication use in “”: this way I have an insight into whether the dosage or type of medication is the right one. I can discuss this with the pharmacy and/or doctor. The explanation of the results and the underlying information is described clearly and comprehensibly. It was a clear story for me without too much unnecessary information. I recognize certain complaints in the descriptions that both I and the doctors could not explain earlier. The person-oriented explanation of how a Gene works and the deceleration or acceleration factors are a nice reference work that you can use to get started. I'm very happy with it. The recommendations and advices are clear and clearly defined and are certainly achievable.
The user-friendliness of the site and service are certainly above average. The average computer user (and I am certainly one of them) can easily find his way.
This test is definitely recommended for anyone who wants to keep control of his medication and who is committed to good health. personal medicine test

07-03-2019 |

I personally give this personal DNA medicine test 5 stars. The reason is: it is a well-understandable test.
A test that you can show to general practitioners and specialists, but which in my case has made a lot very clear to me. Until now, I did not feel understood if I could not handle a medicine again. Now it is black on white why this works differently for me. A good example is that now that I know that COMT gen is not working well, I've come to understand why I remain so stiff from the stress long after fear and shock. I've always thought that I was a weak person who could not bear anything. But now I see myself and the doctors in a different light. Even the medicines that I break down badly according to my DNA, I always had to defend. Now I put the DNA on the table.
It is only a pity that doctors have not been trained in this. We should bring that to the attention of future doctors...
Furthermore, I would recommend it to anyone who has difficulty taking medicines. But also for those who do not, it is a beautiful document about yourself that gives the truth about yourself. It has nothing to make you worry about the future. That's why many people recommend it to you. I now face the future with more tranquility and if I had been able to do this earlier I would have been spared a medicine poisoning. I wanted to write a short and concise report, but my enthusiasm is so great.

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